Services and methods

Chemical and mineralogical composition

  • Analysis of major and minor element oxides using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) on fused beads
  • Calculation of the clinker phase contents acc. Bogue (C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF, C2F, C) and other parameters (lime saturation factor, silica ratio, alumina ratio, degree of sulfatisation, etc.) based on the XRF data
  • Determination of the contents of clinker and other phases using quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis (QXRD) based in Rietveld refinement
  • QXRD on the residue after methanol-salicylic acid digestion (M/S digestion); the digestion dissolves the calcium silicates from the sample and allows more accurate quantification of cubic and orthorhombic C3A, C4AF, periclase alkali sulphates and other minor clinker phases

Clinker Microstructure

  • Assessment of the granule sizes, dust content, colour, burning degree, etc.
  • Clinker microscopy - preparation and reflected light microscopy of polished clinker sections
  • Qualitative evaluation of porosity, cluster formation, phase morphology, burning degree, phase formation disturbances, inclusions, etc.
  • Measurement of crystal sizes (alite, belite, matrix) and cluster sizes, evaluation of cooling conditions
  • Evaluation of suitability of raw materials and kiln feed (fineness, homogeneity), fuels and fuel ashes, burning conditions, precooling and cooling, redox conditions in the clinker bed

Ono’s method

  • Evaluation of heating rate, maximum temperature, length of the sintering zone and cooling conditions

Complementary methods

Your benefits

  • Our expertise is based on many decades of tradition of interdisciplinary research and analysis of clinker
  • We adapt the scope of the analyses and the approach to your problem in the best possible way (e.g. solving acute problems or optimisation of the process or product)
  • Documentation of the results in comprehensible technical reports
  • Derivation of practical measures for implementation
  • Regular monitoring of important clinker parameters and microstructural properties and presentation in clear table-based short reports for long-term control of process and product quality

Are you interested?

  • We are happy to send you exemplary Technical Reports or table-based Reports of Analysis
  • Are you particularly interested in clinker microscopy? In the following download area you will find the VDZ picture atlas "Microscopy of cement clinker"  and other interesting VDZ publications
  • We would also be pleased to offer you customer-specific training courses on the subjects of XRF, QXRD, clinker microscopy or other methods mentioned above - at VDZ or at your premises




Microscopy of Cement Clinker: Picture Atlas

Verein Deutscher Zementwerke, VDZ, Ed. Microscopy of Cement Clinker: Picture Atlas. Duesseldorf: Bet.-Verl., 1977

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Mikroskopie des Zementklinkers: Bilderatlas

Verein Deutscher Zementwerke, VDZ, Hrsg. Mikroskopie des Zementklinkers: Bilderatlas. Düsseldorf: Beton-Verl., 1965 (Die Publikation ist auch in englischer Sprache abrufbar.)

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Influences of the oxyfuel cooling medium on mineralogy and microstructure of Portland cement clinker

17th EMABM, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, May 20-23, 2019 Hrsg. Proceedings of the 17th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials, Toronto (Canada), 20. to 23. May 2019

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Alite Decomposition vs. Alite Corrosion

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Hrsg. 16th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials : EMABM 2017 (Les Diablerets 14.-17.May 2017). Lausanne: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, 2017, S.23-26

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Evaluation of portland cement clinker with optical microscopy - case studies III

Copuroglu, Oguzhan (Hrsg): Proceedings of the 15th Euroseminar on microscopy applied to building materials (Delft 17.-19.06.2015). Delft, 2015, S.33-37

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Effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on clinker properties

International Cement Microscopy Association, ICMA (Hrsg): Proceedings of the 34th international conference on cement microscopy (Halle/Saale 01.-04.04.2012). ICMA, 2012

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Evaluation of portland cement clinker with optical microscopy - case studies II

13th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials (Ljubljana 14.-18.06.2011). Ljubljana: Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, 2011, 7 S.

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Evaluation of portland cement clinker with optical microscopy - case studies

12th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials: Full Paper (Dortmund 15.-19.09.2009). Dortmund: TU Dortmund, 2009, 10 S.

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Other services in which we operate

Laboratory services

Our interdisciplinary team can provide answers to virtually all questions relating to cementitious building materials in line with the latest state-of-the-art. At the same time we can offer our customers a range of services encompassing all important testing activities and consultation work, right through to complex expert reports. Up-to-the-minute research and a professional attitude towards service combine to produce synergies which are reflected by the high quality and practical relevance of our work.

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Process technology

Our broad range of services encompasses all types of testing in the field of thermal and mechanical process technology, as well as technical reviews and benchmarking, digital process support and comprehensive maintenance work. We optimise your processes, enhance the energy efficiency of your installations, perform maintenance work and offer support for your digitisation projects.

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Education and Training

VDZ has been offering its training and education programme for more than 60 years. Our education and training programmes ranges from one-day workshops to two-year courses for foremen and cover a broad scope of topics on the production of cement and its application in mortar and concrete.

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Person to contact

Do you have any questions on this subject?

Dr Jörg Rickert
Chemistry and mineralogy

+49-211-45 78-283

Thank you for your interest in our publication: