Aim of research

The aim was to determine the influence of more intensive, two-stage mixing processes on the early hydration and microstructure formation of differently composed, ressource-efficient Portland-composite cements and composite cements and also on the strength development and durability of concrete. Systematically, it was determined to what extent the cement performance can be improved by more intensive, two-stage mixing and the combination of limestone and blast furnace slag or fly ash or calcined clay.


The hydration and microstructure formation of suspensions and mortars produced in intensive mixers or suspension mixers at different energy inputs were determined by heat flow calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and electron microscopy as well as ultrasonic transmission measurements, compressive strength testing and porosity measurements. The results were verified on fresh concretes and hardened concretes, produced in industry-oriented, two-stage mixing processes on a pilot plant scale, by means of consistency, compressive strength and durability investigations.

Benefits for small and medium-sized companies (SME)

The results can be used in particular by SMEs in the cement and concrete industry to expand the portfolio of clinker-efficient cements with reduced specific CO₂ emissions and high-performance concretes and especially to evaluate corresponding mixing systems. The results provide insights into ressource-efficient standard cements, which are currently still used in a subordinate way, and help the concrete industry to better assess their performance using intensive mixing systems. This strengthens the competitiveness of SMEs in the decarbonisation of concrete construction.


The IGF project 21320 N of the Research Association VDZ Technology gemeinnützige GmbH - VDZ Technology gGmbH, Toulouser Allee 71, 40476 Düsseldorf, Germany, was funded by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Action via the German Federation of Industrial Research Associations (AiF) within the framework of the programme to promote Joint Industrial Research (IGF) on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag.

This research project has been concluded

Person to contact

Do you have any questions on this subject?

Dr Jörg Rickert
Chemistry and mineralogy

+49-211-45 78-283

Other items of possible interest


Research projects

Interactions of accelerating admixtures and clinker-efficient cements with several main constituents to improve the early compressive strength of concrete

The acceptance of resource-efficient cements with significantly reduced specific CO₂ emissions is still too low in construction practice. The main reason for this is that early strength is not high enough for economical production processes and also competitive construction with concrete. Accelerating admixtures can improve the early strength of concrete. The research project investigates interactions between concrete admixtures that accelerate the strength development and cements with several main constituents.

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