Cement is an inorganic, finely ground, hydraulic binder for mortar and concrete. The basic ingredients for the raw material mix of modern construction cement consists of 70 to 80 percent limestone and 20 to 30 percent clay. Depending on the chemical composition of the raw materials found in the quarries, corrective materials need to be added.
The name cement goes back to the romans, who developed back in the 3rd century BC the building material "opus caementitium", which has been used in early concrete constructions. It was not until the end of the 18th century, when the cement as we know it today was discovered in England. Since then, there are no limits to the development of innovative cements and concrete. With a total production of around 3.6 billion tonnes per year, cement is the most used construction material worldwide.
Over the past decades, the cement industry has evolved more and more into a high-tech industry. The material transport is automated to a substantial degree, production is controlled via computer-aided process control systems and product quality is ensured through complex laboratory processes. The standardized mass product cement continues to be an important construction material and the innovative potentials for using cement in new industrial fields is actively pursued. The development of special cements, such as high-performance quick-setting cement or micro-fine injection cement, continues to gain in importance.